Saturday, 17 September 2011

Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) (Hindi:राष्ट्रीय स्वयंसेवक संघ, Marathi: राष्ट्रीय स्वयंसेवक संघ,en.Ready for Selfless Service), (National Volunteer Organization[3] or National Patriotic Organization[4]), also known the Sangh, is a right-wing Hindu nationalist, paramilitary,[5] volunteer,[6] and allegedly militant[7][8][9][10][11] organization for Hindu males in India.[12] These allegations are denied and termed as political conspiracy[13][14][15][16][17] by RSS and some others. RSS is a part of the umbrella group of Hindu nationalist organisations – Sangh Parivar.[5] It was founded in 1925 by K. B. Hedgewar, a doctor from Nagpur, as a social and cultural organisation in British India,[6] to oppose both British colonialism in India and Muslim separatism.[18]
RSS volunteers participated in various political and social movements including the freedom movement[6] and the organization became the leading Hindu nationalist organization in India.[18] By the 1990s, the group had established numerous schools, charities and clubs to propagate its ideology.[18] RSS volunteers are also known for their role in the relief and rehabilitation work during natural calamities[19] and for running more than 100,000 service programs in education, health care, rural development, tribal emancipation, village self-sufficiency, Farming Programmes in rural India and the rehabilitation of lepers and special needs children.[20][21][22]
Some critics have referred to the RSS as a Hindu nationalist organization.[2][23][24][25] It was banned by the British,[18] and then after independence three times by the Government of India- first in 1948 when Nathuram Godse, a former member[26] who left it later, assassinated Mahatma Gandhi.;[18][27][28] then during emergency(1975–1978) and after Demolition of Babri Masjid in 1992.




RSS was founded in 1925 by Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar, who was a doctor in the central Indian city of Nagpur.[29] Hedgewar as a medical student in Kolkata had been a part of the revolutionary activities of the Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar striving to free India from British rule.[30] He had been charged with sedition in 1921 by the British Administration and was imprisoned for one year.[31]
Hedgewar was educated by his elder brother. After matriculating he decided to go to Kolkata to study medicine. He was sent to Kolkata by Dr. B. S. Moonje in 1910 to pursue his medical studies. There he lived with Shyam Sundar Chakravarthy[32] and learned the techniques of fighting from the secret revolutionary organisations like the Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar in Bengal. He immediately joined Anushilan Samiti and had contacts with revolutionaries like Ram Prasad Bismil.[33] He took active part in the Historical Kakori conspiracy with the fake name of Keshab Chakravarthy and went underground. Although he had been an active member of Indian National Congress[30] but he left it in the year 1925 to form the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.
A rare group photo of six initial swayamsevaks taken on the occasion of a RSS meeting held in 1939[34]
Since Hedgewar was primerly associated with the Hindustan Republican Association so he adopted the full constitution of erstwhile HRA and implemented it forcibly in his newly established organisation RSS later on. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) first met in 1925 just after a month of Kakori train robbery in a small ground of Nagpur with 5-6 persons on Vijaya Dashami. After the formation of the RSS, Hedgewar kept the organization away from having any direct affiliation with any of the political organisations then fighting British rule.[23] But Hedgewar and his team of volunteers, took part in the Indian National Congress, led movements against the British rule. Hedgewar was arrested in the Jungle Satyagraha agitation in 1931 and served a second term in prison[30][31][35]

Background of RSS

When the trial of Kakori conspiracy was proceeding in Lucknow the British Government employed most of the Muslim Police Officers and the Special Magistrates[36] who left no stone unturned to get the revolutionaries hanged to death or regorous imprisonments. Moreover the Hindu sect of society proved worthless to retalliate the proceedings of the court as Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil has clearly mentioned in his autobiography[37] and Pt Banarsi Das Chaturvedi - the editor of Kakori Ke Shaheed had also condemned it very strongly.[38]
A book titled Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna in 4 volumes was published in India which was released on 19 December 1996[39] by the former Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The forward of this book was written by the then Sarsanghchalak of RSS Prof. Rajendra Singh who himself was present on the occasion. In this book a chapter is given in which RSS has been termed as Banyan tree of Bismil's thought by the writter of the book.[40] In another book Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas, the above contents have been verified with reliable sources and the fact has been established by the author. Whatever guidelines Ram Prasad Bismil had suggested in his Autobiography,[41] the RSS has expanded its organisation on the same foot-prints. Even the constitution of RSS totally resembles with that of the Hindustan Republican Association[42] to which any body can compare.
Ram Prasad Bismil had also expressed the need of a revolutionary organisation very clearly in his autobiography for the betterment of India's democracy. He writes in Hindi:
"भारतवर्ष के इतिहास में हमारे प्रयत्‍नों का उल्लेख करना ही पड़ेगा किन्तु इसमें भी कोई सन्देह नहीं है कि भारतवर्ष की राजनैतिक, धार्मिक तथा सामाजिक किसी प्रकार की परिस्थिति इस समय क्रान्तिकारी आन्दोलन के पक्ष में नहीं है । इसका कारण यही है कि भारतवासियों में शिक्षा का अभाव है । वे साधारण से साधारण सामाजिक उन्नति करने में भी असमर्थ हैं । फिर राजनैतिक क्रान्ति की बात कौन कहे ? राजनैतिक क्रान्ति के लिए सर्वप्रथम क्रान्तिकारियों का संगठन ऐसा होना चाहिए कि अनेक विघ्न तथा बाधाओं के उपस्थित होने पर भी संगठन में किसी प्रकार त्रुटि न आये । सब कार्य यथावत् चलते रहें । कार्यकर्त्ता इतने योग्य तथा पर्याप्‍त संख्या में होने चाहिएं कि एक की अनुपस्थिति में दूसरा स्थानपूर्ति के लिए सदा उद्यत रहे ।"
Ram Prasad Bismil: from the gallows of Gorakhpur Jail
The RSS was established as a educational body whose objective was to train a group of Hindus, who on the basis of their character would work to unite the Hindu community so that India could become an independent country and a creative society.[6] Encyclopedia Britannica opines that "Hedgewar was heavily influenced by the writings of the Hindu nationalist ideologue Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and adopted much of his rhetoric concerning the need for the creation of a 'Hindu nation'. Contradicting its own statement, the Encyclopedia Britannica also claims that RSS is established to foster unity among Hindu youths of all castes and classes".[43] Hedgewar formed the RSS as a disciplined cadre of volunteers who were dedicated to the independence and protection of Hindu's political, cultural, and religious interests. During World War II the RSS' members openly admired Adolf Hitler in order to counter British rule in India.[18]
To keep up the purity of the Race and its culture, Germany shocked the world by her purging the country of the Semitic races—the Jews. Race pride at its highest has been manifested here. Germany has also shown how well nigh impossible it is for Races and cultures, having differences going to the root, to be assimilated into one united whole, a good lesson for us in Hindustan to learn and profit by.

Activities during partition

The Partition of India was a very traumatic event in the young nation's history with millions of Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims attempting to escape the violence and carnage that followed.[46]
Noted Gandhian and recipient of the highest civilian award in India, Bharat Ratna, Dr. Bhagwan Das commended the role of the "high-spirited and self-sacrificing boys" of the RSS in protecting the newly formed Republic of India, from a planned coup to topple the Jawaharlal Nehru Administration in Delhi[47][48]

First ban and the acquittal

Following Mahatma Gandhi's assassination in 1948 by a member[18] or former member[28] of the RSS, Nathuram Godse, many prominent leaders of the RSS were arrested and RSS as an organization was banned on February 4, 1948. On this issue the then India's Home Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel wrote to then RSS Chief M. S. Golwalkar:
"As a final result of the poison, the country had to suffer the sacrifice of the invaluable life of Gandhiji. Even an iota of the sympathy of the Government or of the people no more remained for the RSS. In fact, opposition grew. Opposition turned more severe when the RSS men expressed joy and distributed sweets after Gandhiji's death."
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel[49]
A Commission of Inquiry into Conspiracy to murder of Mahatma Gandhi was set and its report was published by India's Ministry of Home Affairs in the year 1970. Accordingly Justice Kapur Commission[50] noted the following:
"...RSS as such were not responsible for the murder of Mahatma Gandhi, meaning thereby that one could not name the organization as such as being responsible for that most diabolical crime, the murder of the apostle of peace". "It has not been proved that they (the accused) were members of the RSS which shows that they (the accused) were believers in a more violent form of activities..."
Kapur Commission Report[51]
RSS Leaders were acquitted of the conspiracy charge by the Supreme Court of India and following an intervention by the Court, the Indian Government agreed to lift the ban with condition that the RSS adopt a formal constitution. The second Sarsanghachalak, Golwalkar drafted the constitution for the RSS which he sent to the government in March 1949. In July of the same year, after many negotiations over the constitution and its acceptance, the ban on RSS was lifted.[29]
On January 15, 2000, a daily, The Statesman, carried a story about the RSS by A G Noorani, which depicted the RSS as the killer of Gandhi.[52] Subsequently the Delhi unit of the RSS filed a criminal case of defamation against author of the article A G Noorani along with the cartoonist and the Managing Director of the publishing house. When two of the accused did not respond to the Court summons, non-bailable warrants were issued in their name by the Court.[53] On February 25, 2002, Noorani wrote an unconditional apology to the court in which he regretted writing the defamatory article against the RSS. On March 3, 2002, 'The Statesman' also published an apology regretting the publication of the said article.[54]

Liberation of Dadra, Nagar Haveli and Goa

After the Independence of India, many organizations including the RSS aspired to liberate Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese occupation. In early 1954, volunteers Raja Wakankar and Nana Kajrekar of the RSS visited the area round about Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman several times to study the topography and also to get acquainted with the local workers who were agitating for the liberation. In April 1954, the RSS formed a coalition with the National Movement Liberation Organization (NMLO), the and Azad Gomantak Dal (AGD) for the liberation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[55] On the night of 21 July, United front of Goans, a group, working independently of the coalition, captured the Portuguese police station at Dadra and declared Dadra as free. Subsequently on 28 July, volunteer teams of the RSS and AGD captured the territories of Naroli and Phiparia and ultimately the capital of Silvassa. The Portuguese forces which escaped and moved towards Nagar Haveli, were assaulted at Khandvel and were forced to retreat till they surrendered to the Indian border police at Udava on 11 August 1954. A native administration was setup with Appasaheb Karmalkar of NMLO as the Administrator of Dadra and Nagar Haveli on 11 August 1954.[55]
The liberation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli gave a boost to the freedom movement against the Portuguese in Goa.[55] In 1955, RSS leaders demanded the end of Portuguese rule in Goa and its integration into India. When Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru refused to obtain it by armed intervention, RSS leader Jagannath Rao Joshi led the satyagraha agitation straight into Goa itself. He was imprisoned with his followers by the Portuguese police. The peaceful protests continued but met with severe repressions. On 15 August 1955, the Portuguese police opened fire on the satyagrahis, killing thirty or so people.[56]

Role during the 1962 Sino-Indian War

The RSS which had been keeping low profile after the lifting of the ban, earned recognition based on its volunteer work during the Sino-Indian War in 1962.[57] RSS was invited by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to take part in the Indian Republic day parade of 1963.[58] It along with several other civilian organizations took part in the parade.[59] This event helped the RSS increase its popularity and its patriotic image.[60][61][62]
Later in 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pak wars too, the RSS volunteers offered their services to maintain law and order of the country and were apparently the first to donate blood.[63]

Movement for the restoration of democracy

In 1975, the Indian Government under the Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi, proclaimed emergency rule in India, thereby suspending the fundamental rights and curtailing the rights of the press.[64] This extreme step was taken after the Supreme Court of India, cancelled her election to the Indian Parliament on charges of malpractices in the election.[64] The democratic institutions were kept under suspended animation and prominent opposition leaders including Gandhian Jayaprakash Narayan, were arrested and thousands of people were detained without any charges being framed against them.[65] RSS, which was seen close to opposition leaders, and with its large organizational base was seen to have potential of organizing protests against the Government, was also banned.[66] Police clamped down on the organization and thousands of its workers were imprisoned.[30]
The RSS defied the ban and thousands participated in Satyagraha (peaceful protests) against the ban and against the curtailment of fundamental rights. Later, when there was no letup, the volunteers of the RSS formed underground movements for the restoration of democracy. Literature that was censored in the media was clandestinely published and distributed on a large scale and funds were collected for the movement. Networks were established between leaders of different political parties in the jail and outside for the coordination of the movement.[67] It said that the movement was "dominated by tens of thousands of RSS cadres, though more and more young recruits are coming". Talking about its objectives it said "its platform at the moment has only one plank: to bring democracy back to India".[68] The Emergency was lifted in 1977 and as a consequence the ban on the RSS too was lifted.

Participation in land reforms

It has been noted that the RSS volunteers participated in the Bhoodan movement organized by Gandhian leader Vinobha Bhave. Vinobha Bhave had met the RSS leader M. S. Golwalkar in Meerut in November 1951. Golwalkar had been inspired by the movement that encouraged land reforms through voluntary means. He pledged the support of the RSS for this movement.[69] Consequently, many RSS volunteers led by Nanaji Deshmukh participated in the movement.[6] But Golwalkar has also been critical of the Bhoodan movement, on other occasions for being reactionary and for working "merely with a view to counteracting Communism". He believed that the movement should inculcate a right and positive faith in the masses that can make them rise above the base appeal of Communism.[70]


RSS does not have any formal membership. According to the official website, a Hindu male can become member by joining the nearest ‘Shakha’, which is the basic unit.[12] Although the RSS claims not to keep membership records, it is estimated that the organization has between 2.5–6 million members.[2]


All 6 Sarsanghchalaks of R.S.S.
The Sarsanghchalak (Sanskrit: सरसंघचालकः) is the head of the RSS organization. The individuals who have been Sarsanghchalaks are:
The position is decided by nomination by predecessor. The current Sarsanghachalak of RSS is Dr. Mohan Madhukar Bhagwat.


Sangh shakha at Nagpur headquarter
"Shakha" is Hindi for "branch". Most of the organizational work of the RSS is done through the coordination of shakhas or branches. These shakhas are run for 1 hour in public places. In 2004, more than 60,000 shakhas were run throughout India.[71] However the number of Shakas has fallen by over 10,000 since the fall of the BJP led government in 2004.[72] According to Vagish Issar, RSS's media representative in Delhi, the number of Shakas has fallen to 39,823 as of January 2010.[72] Local leaders have asserted links to the casteist policies of the Bahujan Samaj Party and the Samajwadi Party have driven members away.[72]
The shakhas conduct various activities for its volunteers which include physical fitness activities through yoga, exercises and games. It has other activities which emphasize on qualities like civic sense, social service, community living and patriotism.[73] The volunteers are trained in first aid and in rescue and rehabilitation operations. The volunteers are also encouraged to get involved in the developmental activities of the village or locality.[73][74]

IT Milan

For swayamsevaks who work in IT(Information Technology) related sectors another form of Shakha is set, called as "IT Milan". These are weekly meetings unlike the regular Shakhas which run daily. IT Milans are observed in many IT cities in India – Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune. There are as many as 3,000 techies in Bangalore who meet regularly this way. This 60–90 minutes weekly gathering includes a Prayer, Surya Namaskara, Yoga, games, song and sermon. IT Milans are user friendly; the prayer is available as a printout, usually everyone is addressed in English, and there are enough people to aid newcomers on the Surya Namaskara and seven yoga asanas. These exercises have been designed for IT professionals who suffer from chronic lower backache due to long hours at computers. It also helps that their employers respect their RSS links. Games are played during the Milan to relieve tension in the minds of IT Swayamsevaks and foster team spirit. An IT Milan also serves as a forum for discussion on various issues of national and international importance like the Copenhagen Summit and West Bengal government's decision to grant religion based reservation to Muslims.[75]


The mission of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh has been described as the revitalization of Indian value system based on universalism and peace and prosperity to all.[70] Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam, the worldview that the whole world is one family, propounded by the ancient thinkers of India, is considered as the ultimate mission of the organization.[76]
But the immediate focus, the leaders believe, is on the Hindu renaissance, which would build an egalitarian society and a strong India that could propound this philosophy. Hence, the focus is on social reform, economic upliftment of the downtrodden and the protection of cultural diversity of the natives in India.[76] The organization says, it aspires to unite all Hindus and build a strong India, which could contribute to the welfare of the world. In the words of RSS ideologue and the second head of the RSS, M S Golwalkar, "in order to be able to contribute our unique knowledge to mankind, in order to be able to live and strive for the unity and welfare of the world, we stand before the world as a self-confident, resurgent and mighty nation".[70]
In Vichardhara (en.Bunch of Thoughts) M. S. Golwalkar affirms the RSS mission of integration as[70]:
"Realising the national character of Hindu People, the RSS has been making determined efforts to inculcate in them burning devotion for Bharat and its national ethos; kindle in them the spirit of dedication and sterling qualities and character; rouse social consciousness, mutual good-will, love and cooperation among them all; to make them realise that casts, creeds and languages are secondary and that service to the nation is the supreme end and to mold their behaviour accordingly; instill in them a sense of true humility and discipline and train their bodies to be strong and robust so as to shoulder any social responsibility; and thus to create all-round Anushasana in all walks of life and build together all our people into a unified harmonious national whole, extending from Himalayas to Kanyakumari."
Golwalkar also explains that RSS does not intend to compete in electioneering politics or share power. He asserts that there is no place in RSS for any hatred or opposition towards any particular caste, creed or party. The movement considers Hindus as inclusive of Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, tribals, untouchables, Veerashaivism, Arya Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission, etc. as a community, a view similar to inclusive referencing of the term Hindu in the Indian Constituion.[77][78][79]
Christopher Jaffrelot opines that RSS's objective has been the establishment of a Hindu nation in India and that its twofold objective was to propagate the Hindutva ideology and infuse physical strength to the Hindu community.[80]

Sangh Parivar

Organizations which are inspired by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh's ideology refer themselves as the members of the Sangh Parivar.[2] In most of the cases, pracharaks (full-time volunteers of the RSS) were deputed to start and manage these organizations. The organizations within the Sangh include the Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Vanbandhu Parishad, Rashtriya Sevika Samiti, Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad, Vanavasi Kalyan Ashram, Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh, Vidya Bharati, Seva Bharati and many others spread in all parts of society.[81] Numerous other Hindutva organizations take inspiration from the RSS's philosophy.
RSS has never directly contested elections, but supports parties that are ideologically similar. Although RSS generally endorses the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), yet at times had refused to do so due to difference of opinion with the party. Also, RSS is open to support any political party that subscribes to its views.[82][83]
Of late, the volunteers of the RSS have also held prominent political and administrative positions in India including the Prime Minister of India, the Vice President of India, the Home Minister and Ministers in the Central Government, Governors and Chief Ministers of various states and the members of elected bodies at the state and the national level and also the Indian ambassador to the US[84][85][86]

Social Service And Reform

The RSS has advocated the training of Dalits and other backward classes as temple high priests (a position traditionally reserved for Caste Brahmins and denied to lower castes). They argue that the social divisiveness of the Caste system is responsible for the lack of adherence to Hindu values and traditions and reaching out to the lower castes in this manner will be a remedy to the problem.[87] The RSS has also condemned 'upper' caste Hindus for preventing Dalits from worshipping at temples, saying that "even God will desert the temple in which Dalits cannot enter"[88]
Christophe Jaffrelot finds that "there is insuficient data available to carry out a statistical analysis of social origins of the early RSS leaders" but goes on to conclude, based on some known profiles that most of the RSS founders and its leading organisers, with exceptions were Maharashtrian Brahmins from middle or lower class[89] and argues that the pervasiveness of the Brahminical ethic in the organisation was probably the main reason why it failed to attract support from the low castes. He argues that the "RSS resorted to instrumentalist techniques of ethno-religious mobilisation – in which its Brahminism was diluted – to overcome this handicap."[90] However Anderson and Damle 1987, find that members of all castes have been welcomed into the organisation and are treated as equals.[6]
During M. K. Gandhi's visit to RSS Camp accompanied by Mahadev Desai and Mirabehn at Wardha in 1934, he was surprised by the discipline and the absence of untouchability in RSS and commented "When i visited the RSS Camp. I was very much surprised by your discipline and absence of untouchablity ". He personally inquired to Swayamsevaks and found that they were living and eating together in the camp without bothering to know their castes.[91]
Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar while visiting the RSS camp at Pune in 1939 observed that Swayamsevaks were moving in absolute equality and brotherhood without even caring to know the cast of others.[92] In his address to the Swayamsevaks, he said that " This is the first time that I am visiting the camp of Sangh volunters. I am happy to find absolute equality between Savarniyas (Upper cast) and Harijans (Lower cast) without any one being aware of such difference existing." When he asked Dr Hedgewar whether there were any untouchables in the camp, he replied that there are neither "touchables" nor "untouchables" but only Hindus.[93]
It is noted that RSS is taking a lead role in providing the education to people of rural India and socially backward classes living under the extreme poverty.[94]

Relief and rehabilitation

This is a long and continuous tradition with the RSS. The RSS was instrumental in relief efforts after the 1971 Orissa Cyclone and the 1977 Andhra Pradesh Cyclone.[95]
An RSS-affiliated NGO, Seva Bharati, has adopted 57 children (38 Muslims and 19 Hindus) from militancy affected areas of Jammu and Kashmir to provide them education at least up to Higher Secondary level.[96][97] They have also taken care of many victims of the Kargil War of 1999.[98]

Natural calamities

The RSS assisted in relief efforts quite extensively during the 2001 Gujarat earthquake. They helped rebuild villages.[99] They "earned kudos" from many varied agencies and sources for their actions.[95] For instance, in the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, K. Srinivas, District Collector of Ahmedabad, Indian newsmagazine Outlook and India Today reported:
"This is an old tradition in the RSS. To be the first at any disaster strike: floods, cyclone, drought and now quake. In Kutch, too, the RSS was the first to reach the affected areas. At Anjar, a town in ruins, the RSS was present much before the Army took the lead in finding survivors and fishing out the dead."
K. Srinivas, District collector, Ahmedabad
"Literally within minutes RSS volunteers were at the scenes of distress. Across Gujarat, the (RSS) cadres were the saviors. Even as the state machinery went comatose in the first two days after the quake, the cadre-based machinery of the Sangh fanned out throughout the state. Approximately 35,000 RSS members in uniform were pressed into service."
"It is conceded by even their worst detractors that the RSS has been in the forefront of the non- official rescue and relief (operations). This has led to an upsurge of goodwill for the Sangh"
Seva Bharati conducted relief operations in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Activities included building shelters for the victims, providing food, clothes and medical necessities.[102] The RSS assisted relief efforts during the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the subsequent tsunami.[103]
In 2006, RSS participated in relief efforts to provide basic necessities such as food, milk and potable water to the people of Surat, Gujarat who were affected by massive floods in the region.[104]
The RSS volunteers carried out massive relief and rehabilitation work after the floods ravaged North Karnataka and some districts of the state of Andhra Pradesh.[105]
During 2006 Indian Ocean Tsunami tragedy, while the tsunami struck the entire coastline of Tamil Nadu, nine districts were particularly affected badly. Cho Ramaswamy, editor, Tughlaq magazine reported that though the concerned authorities admitted privately that it was the RSS-sponsored Sewa Bharati which did yeoman service everywhere, politics forbade them to acknowledge this in public.[106]

Protection of Sikhs during the 1984 anti-Sikh riots

Sikh intellectual and author of 'A History of the Sikhs', Khushwant Singh, credits members of the RSS with helping and protecting Sikhs who were being targeted by members of the Congress(I) political party during the 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots.[107] Singh who otherwise has been critical of the RSS and believes that it is a " communal organization and dangerous to the country's secular fabric"
"RSS has played an honorable role in maintaining Hindu-Sikh unity before and after the murder of Indira Gandhi in Delhi and in other places"
"It was the Congress (I) leaders who instigated mobs in 1984 and got more than 3000 people killed. I must give due credit to RSS and the BJP for showing courage and protecting helpless Sikhs during those difficult days. No less a person than Atal Bihari Vajpayee himself intervened at a couple of places to help poor taxi drivers".

Discrimination against RSS volunteers

Many cases have been reported in post-independence India where RSS volunteers have been discriminated against by the government due to their allegiance to the RSS and its ideology.[108] In a court case of a teacher who was dismissed from service due to his past links with the RSS, the Supreme Court labeled the government's action as "McCarthyism" and a "violation of fundamental rights".[109][110][111][112][113][114]
A municipal school teacher, Ramshanker Raghuvanshi, was dismissed by the Congress government of Madhya Pradesh in 1974, which stated that he had taken "part in the RSS" activities and hence was "not a fit person to be entertained in Government service". The Supreme Court dismissed the arguments of the government and said that the government had not adhered to the provisions of the Indian Constitution. The Supreme Court bench consisting of Justice Syed Murtuza Fazalali and Justice O. Chinnappa Reddy observed that "India is not a police state" and pleaded that the "promise of fundamental rights enshrined in the Indian Constitution not become a forgotten chapter of history". Delivering the landmark judgment, the Court observed that "seeking a police report on person's political faith", in the first place, "amounted to the violation of fundamental rights". The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the municipal teacher and ordered his reinstatement.[109][110][111][112][113][114]
Similar observations were made by the High courts of different provinces of India in different cases of political persecution of RSS volunteers.[108] One case involved Ranganathacharya Agnihotri, who was selected for the post of Munsiff but was not absorbed into service as he had been a volunteer of the RSS in his past. When Agnihotri approached to the then High Court of Mysore (now Karnataka High Court), he was reinstated. The Court observed:
"Prima facie the RSS is a non-political cultural organization without any hatred or ill will towards non-Hindus and that many eminent and respected persons in the country have not hesitated to preside over the functions or appreciate the work of its volunteers. In a country like ours which has accepted the democratic way of life (as ensured by the Constitution), it would not be within reason to accept the proposition that mere membership of such peaceful or non-violent association and participation in activities thereof, will render a person (in whose character and antecedents there are no other defects) unsuitable to be appointed to the post of a Munsiff."
The RSS also has been banned in India thrice, during periods in which the government of the time claimed that they were a threat to the state: in 1948 after Mahatma Gandhi's assassination, during the Emergency (1975–77), and after the 1992 Babri Masjid demolition. The bans were subsequently lifted, in 1949 after the RSS was absolved of charges in the Gandhi murder case, in 1977 as a result of the Emergency being revoked, and in 1993 when no evidence of any unlawful activities was found against it by the tribunal constituted under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act.[116]


Field Marshal Cariappa in his speech to RSS volunteers said "RSS is my heart's work. My dear young men, don't be disturbed by uncharitable comments of interested persons. Look ahead! Go ahead! The country is standing in need of your services"[117]
Dr Zakir Hussain the former President of India once told to Milad Mehfil in Monghyar on November 20, 1949 "The allegations against RSS of violence and hatred against Muslims are wholly false. Muslims should learn the lesson of mutual love, cooperation and organization from RSS.[118][119]
Noted Gandhian leader and the leader of Sarvoday movement, Jayaprakash Narayan, who earlier was a vocal opponent of RSS had the following to say about it in 1977 "RSS is a revolutionary organization. No other organization in the country comes anywhere near it. It alone has the capacity to transform society, end casteism and wipe the tears from the eyes of the poor." He further added "I have great expectations from this revolutionary organization which has taken up the challenge of creating a new India"[120]

Criticisms and accusations

Christopher Jaffrelot, the director of the Center for Studies and Research (CERI) observes that although the RSS with its paramilitary style of functioning and its emphasis on discipline has sometimes been seen by some as "an Indian version of fascism",[121] he believes that the characteristic of the RSS's ideology has been to down-play the role of the state and hence it cannot be classified as a fascist movement. He further argues that RSS's ideology treats society as an organism with a secular spirit, which is implanted not so much in the race as in a socio-cultural system and which will be regenerated over the course of time by patient work at the grassroots. He writes that ideology of the RSS did not develop a theory of the state and the race, a crucial elements in European nationalisms; Nazism and Fascism"[121] and that the RSS leaders were interested in cultural unity rather than racial homogeneity.[122]
The likening of Sangh Parivar to "fascism" by Western critics has been critiqued by Jyotirmaya Sharma as an "attempt by them to make sense" of the growth of extremist politics and intolerance within their society. And that such "simplistic transference" has done great injustice to our knowledge of Hindu nationalist politics.[123] Belgian scholar Dr Koenraad Elst, points out that such accusations have come mainly from the Marxist academia in India and abroad and that they are less driven by facts than by their ideological zeal. He also criticises the Hindu organisations for being "piecemeal" in their replies to such "polemical" accusations.[124]
The RSS has been censured for its involvement in communal riots in at least six reports by judges who presided over commissions of inquiry:
  1. Jaganmohan Reddy report on the Ahmedabad riots 1969
  2. D.P. Madon report on the Bhiwandi riots in 1970
  3. Vithayathil report on the Tellicherry riots in 1971
  4. Jitendra Narayan report on the Jamshedpur riots in 1979
  5. P. Venugopal report on the Kanyakumari riots of 1982
  6. report on the Bhagalpur riots in 1989[125]
"After giving careful and serious consideration to all the materials that are on record,the Commission is of the view that the RSS with its extensive organisation in jamshedpur and which had close links with the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh had a positive hand in creating a climate which was most propitious for the outbreak of communal disturbances." "In the first instance, the speech of Shri Deoras (delivered just five days before the Ram Navami festival) tended to encourage the Hindu extremists to be unyielding in their demands regarding Road No. 14. Secondly, his speech amounted to communal propaganda. Thirdly,the shakhas and the camps that were held during the divisional conference presented a militant atmosphere to the Hindu public. In the circumstances, the commission cannot but hold the RSS responsible for creating a climate for the disturbances that took place on the 11th of April, 1979"
Jitendra Narayan[126][127]
I have no doubt that the RSS had taken an active part in rousing up anti-muslim feeling among the Hindus of Tellicherry and in preparing the background for the disturbances. The same can be said about the Jan Sang also. Although there may not be any official connection between the Jan Sang and The RSS, the RSS is generally regarded as the military wing of Jan Sang and the Jan Sang The political wing of RSS"
Justice Vithayithil[128][129]
Members of the Indian National Congress have alleged that former RSS members may have been behind 29 September 2008 Western India bombings.[130]

Allegation of Involvement in Riots and Violence

The Human Rights Watch group has accused Vishwa Hindu Parishad (World Hindu Council, VHP), Bajrang Dal, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) to have been directly involved in violence against Muslims which erupted after 56 Hindus were burnt alive in a coach of Sabarmati Express train at Godhra station. Local VHP, BJP and BD leaders have been named in many police reports filed by eyewitnesses.[131] Contrary to the accusations made by Human Rights Watch, RSS and VHP made appeals to put an end to the violence. They asked their volunteers, sympathizers and friends to prevent any activity that might disrupt peace.[132]

2008 Anti-Christian Riots in Orissa

RSS along with its offshoot organizations Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), Bajrang Dal (BD) and Hindu Jagaran Sammukhya (HJS) stand accused of orchestrating the August 2008 anti-Christian riots in Orissa by Christian groups.[133]
A US-based Christian charity working in Orissa claimed that Hindu extremists were offering money, food and alcohol to mobs to kill Christians and destroy their homes.[133] RSS denied these allegations calling them "absolutely false" and in turn blamed Congress for the pogrom.[133][134] The violence was triggered by the murder of a senior VHP member Swami Lakshamananda Saraswati.[135] VHP blamed Christians and called for revenge, even though Maoist militants claimed responsibility for the killing.[133] RSS/HJS blamed Mr. Radha Kanta Nayak, a member of Congress party of being responsible for the killing and accused his NGO, World Vision of being involved in religious conversions.[134]
The RSS denied these allegations calling them "absolutely false" and in turn blamed Congress for the pogrom.[133][134] The violence was triggered by the murder of a senior VHP member Swami Lakshamananda Saraswati.[135] VHP blamed Christians and called for revenge, even though Maoist militants claimed responsibility for the killing.[133] RSS/HJS blamed Radhakant Nayak, a Christian member of Congress party of being responsible for the killing and accused his NGO, World Vision of being involved in religious conversions.[134]

Alleged involvement in Babari Masjid demolition

The Liberhan Commission report accused the Sangh Parivar of being the chief architect of Babari Masjid demolition.[136][137] The Commission said- "The blame or the credit for the entire temple construction movement at Ayodhya must necessarily be attributed to the Sangh Parivar".[138] It also noted that the Sangh Parivar is an "extensive and widespread organic body", which encompasses organizations, which address and assimilate just about every type of social, professional and other demographic grouping of individuals.
"Each time, a new demographic group has emerged, the Sangh Parivar has hived off some of its RSS inner-core leadership to harness that group and bring it within the fold, enhancing the voter base of the Parivar."[139]
The RSS has disputed the reliability and objectivity of the report. Former RSS chief K S Sudarshan said the mosque was demolished by the government men and not by the Karsevaks, and that the commission reports are fabricated and motivated primarily by anti-Indian sentiment than any objective desire to seek justice."[140]
On the other hand, the Government of India's white paper dismissed the demolition of the disputed structure as preplanned.[141]
"...Everything was normal, the karseva was proceeding ‘as per the plan’ of the organisers;
but ‘in a sudden development’ the karsevaks broke the police cordon and entered the
structure in large numbers and then the demolition took place.
White paper released by the Government of India[141]
Opposition leader Arun Jaitley, whose party's name was mentioned in the report[142] described the Liberhan Commission report as a ‘tragedy of errors’ and a ‘national joke’.[143] Further, Asian Tribune's J N Raina calls the Liberhan Commission's report as 'absurd' and compares it to the fictional tale Alif Laila.[144]


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d Bhatt, Chetan (2001). Hindu Nationalism: Origins, Ideologies and Modern Myths. New York: Berg Publishers. p. 113. ISBN 1859733484.
  3. ^ "Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS)". "(Hindi: “National Volunteer Organization”) also called Rashtriya Seva Sang"
  4. ^ Lutz, James M.; Lutz, Brenda J. (2008). Global Terrorism. Taylor & Francis. p. 303. ISBN 9780415772464. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  5. ^ a b McLeod, John (2002). The history of India. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 209–. ISBN 9780313314599. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Andersen, Walter K.; Shridhar D. Damle (1987). The Brotherhood in Saffron: The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Revivalism. Boulder: Westview Press. p. 111. ISBN 0813373581.
  7. ^ Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Constance Jones, James D. Ryan, illustrated, Infobase Publishing, 2007, ISBN 0816054584, ISBN 9780816054589
  8. ^ Untouchable, dalits in modern India, S. M. Michael, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999, ISBN 1555876978, ISBN 9781555876975
  9. ^ Life and Work of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Atlantic Publishers & Distri
  10. ^ Mohan, Vishwa; Ghosh, Abantika (2011-01-08). "Aseemanand owns up to strike on Mecca Masjid". The Times of India. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  11. ^ "BBC News – Hindu holy man Aseemanand in custody over India blasts". 2011-01-13. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  12. ^ a b Basic FAQ on RSS
  13. ^ The Times Of India.
  14. ^ Political conspiracy behind oxymoron ‘Hindu Terror’: Ram Madhav at Bangalore | Vishwa Samvada Kendra
  15. ^ The Times Of India.
  16. ^ The Times Of India.
  17. ^ The Times Of India.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Atkins, Stephen E. (2004). Encyclopedia of modern worldwide extremists and extremist groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 264. ISBN 9780313324857. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
  19. ^ Outlook, Feb 12, 2001
  20. ^ "Who says RSS is a dying institution?". 2009-07-25. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  21. ^ "RSS service projects multiply ten-fold". Times of India. 2009-11-04.
  22. ^ Ekal Launches Sustainable Farming Program in Rural India | Indo American News
  23. ^ a b "South Asia | Analysis: RSS aims for a Hindu nation". BBC News. 2003-03-10. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  24. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (1998). The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-231-10334-4.
  25. ^ Dossani, Rafiq; Henry S. Rowen (2005). Prospects for peace in South Asia. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 186. ISBN 0-8047-5085-8.
  26. ^ Dr.'Krant'M.L.Verma Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas (Part-3) p.766
  27. ^ "RSS releases `proof' of its innocence". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2004-08-18. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  28. ^ a b Gerald James Larson (1995). India's Agony Over Religion. State University of New York Press. p. 132. ISBN 079142412X.
  29. ^ a b Curran, Jean A. Jr. The RSS: Militant Hinduism Far Eastern Survey, Vol. 19, No. 10. (May 17, 1950), pp. 93–98.
  30. ^ a b c d Chitkara M G, Hindutva, Published by APH Publishing, 1997 ISBN 81-7024-798-5, 9788170247982
  31. ^ a b Chetan Bhatt, Hindu nationalism: origins, ideologies and modern myths, Published by Berg Publishers, 2001
  32. ^ Dr.'Krant'M.L.Verma Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas (Part-2) p.466
  33. ^ Dr.'Krant'M.L.Verma Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas (Part-2) p.465-466
  34. ^ Dr.'Krant'M.L.Verma Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas (Vol-3) p.854 (Dr. Hedgewar with 5 other swayamsevaks who established RSS in 1925)
  35. ^ L. Joshi, Political Ideas and Leadership in Vidarbha, Nagpur University. Dept. of Political Science & Public Administration. Published by Silver Jubilee Committee, Dept. of Political Science & Public Administration, Nagpur University, 1980
  36. ^ Dr.Mehrotra & Dr.Tandon p.128-129
  37. ^ [1]
  38. ^ Chaturvedi Banarsi Das p. 29
  39. ^ Dr.KrantM.L.Verma-Hindi Literature
  40. ^ Madan Lal Verma 'Krant' Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna (Vol-1) p.107 to 110
  41. ^अमर_शहीद_राम_प्रसाद_'बिस्मिल'_की_आत्मकथा
  42. ^ Dr.'Krant'M.L.Verma Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari sahitya Ka Itihas (Vol-3) p.649 to 643
  43. ^ "Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) (Hindu organization)". Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  44. ^ We, or Our Nation Defined, Nagpur: Bharat publications, 1939, p. 37.
  45. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (1998-08). The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231103350. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  46. ^ "India". Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  47. ^ Anthony Elenjimittam, Philosophy and action of the R. S. S for the Hind Swaraj, Published by Laxmi Publications, 1951, page 172
  48. ^ Om Prakash Ralhan, Encyclopedia of political parties, Published by Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2002 ISBN 81-7488-865-9, page 224
  49. ^
  50. ^ Report of Commission of Inquiry into Conspiracy to murder Mahatma Gandhi, By India (Republic). Commission of Inquiry into Conspiracy to murder Mahatma Gandhi, Jeevan Lal Kapur, Published by Ministry of Home affairs, 1970
  51. ^ Kapur Commission Report (Vol-1) Page 165
  52. ^ The Statesman, January 15, 2000
  53. ^ Times of India, November 19, 2001
  54. ^ The Statesman, March 3, 2002
  55. ^ a b c Purushottam Shripad Lele, Dadra and Nagar Haveli: past and present, Published by Usha P. Lele,1987
  56. ^ Christophe Jaffrelot, The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India, Published by Columbia University Press, 1998
  57. ^ Koenraad Elst, Decolonizing the Hindu Mind, Rupa Co, 2001
  58. ^ M. G. Chitkara, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh: National Upsurge, Page 275
  59. ^ Srirupa Roy, Beyond belief: India and the Politics of Postcolonial Nationalism, Page 83
  60. ^ Christophe Jaffrelot, Hindu nationalism: a reader, Published by Princeton University Press, 2007
  61. ^ Pralay Kanungo, RSS's tryst with politics: from Hedgewar to Sudarshan, p. 58. Published by Manohar Publishers and Distributors, 2002
  62. ^ Koenraad Elst, Decolonizing the Hindu mind: ideological development of Hindu revivalism, Published by Rupa & Co., 2001
  63. ^ Jaffrelot Christophe, Hindu nationalist movement and the Indian politics, page 243
  64. ^ a b Emma Tarlo, Unsettling Memories: Narratives of India's "emergency", Published by Orient Blackswan, 2003, ISBN 81-7824-066-1, 9788178240664
  65. ^ Martha Craven Nussbaum, The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future, Published by Harvard University Press, 2007 ISBN 0-674-02482-6, 9780674024823
  66. ^ Jaffrelot Christophe, Hindu Nationalism, 1987, 297, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-13098-1, ISBN 978-0-691-13098-9
  67. ^ Post Independence India, Encyclopedia of Political Parties, 2002, published by Anmol Publications PVT. LTD, ISBN 81-7488-865-9, 9788174888655
  68. ^ page 238, Encyclopedia of Political parties, Volumes 33–50
  69. ^ Suresh Ramabhai, Vinoba and his mission, Published by Akhil Bharat Sarv Seva Sangh, 1954
  70. ^ a b c d M S Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts, Publishers: Sahitya Sindhu Prakashana
  71. ^ RSS might get trendy uniform next year Rediff – July 23, 2004
  72. ^ a b c KAUSHIK, NARENDRA (June 5, 2010). "RSS shakhas fight for survival – India – The Times of India". Indiatimes (The Times of India). Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  73. ^ a b K. R. Malkani, The RSS story, Published by Impex India, 1980
  74. ^ M. G. Chitkara, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh: national upsurge, Published by APH Publishing, 2004, ISBN 81-7648-465-2, 9788176484657
  75. ^ Lulla, Avril B (27 February 2010). "Sangh’s e-Sevaks". Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  76. ^ a b H. V. Seshadri, Hindu renaissance under way, Published in 1984, Jagarana Prakashana, Distributors, Rashtrotthana Sahitya (Bangalore)
  77. ^ Fundamentalisms Comprehended, Volume 5 of The Fundamentalism Project, Martin E. Marty, R. Scott Appleby, University of Chicago Press, 2004, ISBN 0226508889, ISBN 9780226508887
  78. ^ Koenraad Elst, 2002, Who is a Hindu?: Hindu revivalist views of Animism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and other offshoots of Hinduism
  79. ^ Constitution of India: Article 25, quote:"Explanation II: In sub-Clause (b) of clause (2), the reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion"
  80. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe. Hindu Nationalism: a Reader. ISBN 0691130973.
  81. ^ Bhatt, p. 114.
  82. ^ "RSS unhappy with infighting in Guj BJP ~". Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  83. ^ "Toe swadeshi line or lose support, RSS warns BJP". 1998-12-15. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  84. ^ "I will always be a swayamsevak: PM". 2000-09-10. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  85. ^ "Shekhawat a non-partisan candidate, says Vajpayee". 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  86. ^ Haniffa, Aziz, Agnihotri's appointment aimed at boosting US ties, India Abroad, 08-31-2001
  87. ^ RSS for Dalit head priests in temples,Times of India
  88. ^ RSS rips into ban on Dalits entering temples Times of India – January 9, 2007
  89. ^ Jaffrelot Christophe, The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics: 1925 to the 1990s, 1996, 45, C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd, ISBN 1-85065-170-1, ISBN 978-1-85065-170-3
  90. ^ Jaffrelot, p. 50.
  91. ^ K S Bharati, Encyclopedia of Eminent Thinkers, Volume 7, 1998
  92. ^ Om Prakash Ralhan, Encyclopedia of Political Parties,1998
  93. ^ M. G. Chitkara, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh" national upsurge, 2004
  94. ^ Rethinking rural education - Indian Express
  95. ^ a b Ensuring transparency The Hindu – February 18, 2001
  96. ^ "Jammu kids get home away from guns, IBN live, Wed, Jun 28, 2006". 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  97. ^ "JK: RSS adopts militancy hit Muslim children". 2006-06-25. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  98. ^ Fund of Controversy Times of India – December 14, 2002
  99. ^ Goa rebuilds quake-hit Gujarat village Times of India – June 19, 2002
  100. ^ Saba Naqvi Bhaumik, Outlook, Feb 12, 2001
  101. ^ India-Today, 12 Feb, 2001 issue
  102. ^ Relief missions from Delhi, The Hindu
  103. ^ Tsunami toll in TN, Pondy touches 7,000 Rediff – December 29, 2004
  104. ^ RSS joins relief operation in flood-hit Surat,
  105. ^ "RSS volunteers fan out to do relief work". The New Indian Express.
  106. ^ Organiser - Content
  107. ^ a b Kushwant Singh: “Congress (I) is the Most Communal Party”, Publik Asia, 16-11-1989. quoted in Elst Koenraad, Who is a Hindu?, chapter 8.1
  108. ^ a b High Courts on RSS, Sahitya Sindhu publishers, 1983, ISBN818659518X
  109. ^ a b Supreme Court of India. Civil Appellate Jurisdiction, The State of Madhya Pradesh Vs Ramshanker Raghuvanshi, case no 4679, 1980, High Courts on RSS, Sahitya Sindhu publishers, 1983, ISBN818659518X
  110. ^ a b The Supreme Court Millennium Digest, V. R. Manohar, Chitaley W. W., 2000 Published by All India Reporter, 2000, Published by All India Reporter, page 842
  111. ^ a b A. G. Noorani, Political past of Public Servants, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 18, No. 29 (Jul. 16, 1983), p. 1265
  112. ^ a b Indian Factories & Labour Reports, By India Supreme Court, Published by Law Publishing House, 1988,Item notes: v. 57, page 27
  113. ^ a b Labour Law Journal, By India Courts, India Supreme Court, Published by R. Krishnaswami, 1983, page 301
  114. ^ a b R. Venkataramani, Judgements by O. Chinnappa Reddy, a Humanist, 1989, page 8
  115. ^ High Court of Mysore, The State of Karnataka Vs Ranganathacharya Agnihotri, writ No. 588/1966
  116. ^ Noorani, A.G. (2000). The RSS and the BJP: A Division of Labor. New Delhi.
  117. ^ Damle, Shridhar D (1987). The Brotherhood in Saffron. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Revivalism. New Delhi: Vistaar Publications. p. 56. ISBN 0813373581.
  118. ^ Post-independence India. 1998. ISBN 9788174888655. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  119. ^ "Rediff On The NeT: Varsha Bhosle on the controversy surrounding Netaji and the RSS". 1947-09-14. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  120. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (1987). Hindu Nationalism. Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-13098-1, 9780691130989. p. 297. ISBN 0691130973.
  121. ^ a b Jaffrelot, p. 51.
  122. ^ Jaffrelot, p. 57-58.
  123. ^ Hindu Nationalist Politics The Hindu – September 24, 2005
  124. ^ Elst Koenraad, Saffron Swastika, Voice of India publication
  125. ^ The Hindu book page 19
  126. ^ Communal Riots in Post-Independence India-Sangam Books 1984, 1991, 1997-Asgar ali engineer. 1991. ISBN 9788173701023. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  127. ^ Gupta, N.L. (2000). Communal riots in India. New Delhi: Gyan Pub. House. p. 20. ISBN 8121206448.
  128. ^ The RSS and The BJP:A division of labour-by A.G Noorani. 2000. ISBN 9788187496137. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  129. ^ "Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh" By D. R. Goyal (University of Michigan) pg 231
  130. ^ "Enemy within? Purohit wanted RSS leader Indresh Kumar dead". The Times Of India. 2011-01-10.
  131. ^ "India: Gujarat Officials Took Part in Anti-Muslim Violence". 2002-04-30. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  132. ^ RSS, VHP appeal for peace in Gujarat
  133. ^ a b c d e f Blakely, Rhys (November 20, 2008). "Hindu extremists reward to kill Christians as Britain refuses to bar members". The Times (London). Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  134. ^ a b c d "RSS wing blames Cong MP for triggering communal tension in Kandhamal". 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  135. ^ a b "Slain vhp man was conversion king". 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  136. ^ "Excerpts from the Liberhan Commission report". Hindustan Times. 2009-11-25. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  137. ^ "How the BJP, RSS mobilised kar sevaks". 2009-11-25. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  138. ^ "Liberhan comes down heavily on Vajpayee, Advani – India News". 2009-11-24. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  139. ^ "Vajpayee, Advani severely indicted by Liberhan Commission – India – DNA". 2009-11-24. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  140. ^ PTI (2009-11-24). "Sudarshan contests Liberhan's claim : India: India Today". Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  141. ^ a b old dead link to report Liberhan Takes Suspicions As ProofThe New Indian Express, Bengalooru Edition 07-Dec-2009
  142. ^ TNN, Nov 25, 2009, 03.28am IST (2009-11-25). "Kalyan govt executed demolition plan: Liberhan Commission – The Times of India". Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  143. ^ "Liberhan report a fraud, says BJP's Arun Jaitly". Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  144. ^ By J. N. Raina – Syndicate Features (2010-01-01). "Kashmiri Hindus Exodus Led To Babri Demolition….?". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  • A. G. Noorani "RSS:the killer of Gandhi" The Statesman January 15, 2000.
  • Bhatt Chetan Hindu nationalism: origins, ideologies and modern myths 2001 Berg Publishers.
  • Madan Lal Verma 'Krant' SARFAROSI KI TAMANNA (In 4 Parts) 1997 Delhi Praveen Prakashan.
  • Dr.'Krant'M.L.Verma Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas (3 Volumes) 2006 New Delhi Praveen Prakashan ISBN 8177831224 (set).
  • Dr.Mehrotra N.C. & Dr.Tandon Manisha Swatantrata Andolan Mein Janpad Shahjahanpur Ka Yogdan 1995 Shahjahanpur Shaheede-Aazam Pt. Ram Prasad Bismil Trust.




  • Anderson, Walter K.; Damle, Sridhar D. (1987). The Brotherhood in Saffron. Delhi, India: Vistar Publishers.
  • Anand, Adeesh (2007). Shree Guruji And His R.S.S.. Delhi, India: M.D. Publication Pvt. Ltd..

See also

No comments:

Post a Comment